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Arhiv za 3.12.2008

ZGODOVINA JUDOVSKEGA LJUDSTVA in Kletzmer

Objavil pavel dne 3.12.2008

Zgodovina me je vedno zanimala. Tako, da zelo redko zamudim kakšne zgodovinske filme. TV SLO2 vrti super filme o vojskovodjih in o antičnem Rimu. Tem IGRANO – DOKUMENTRANIM filmom pa se je pridružil še nemški o Judih in njihovi zgodovini.

TOREK zvečer: DEDIŠČINA EVROPE: ZGODOVINA JUDOVSKEGA LJUDSTVA, NEMŠKA DOKUMENTARNO-IGRANA NADALJEVANKA, 4/5

Torej sem kakšen teden nazaj gledal Babilon in izgnanstvo Judov v to metropolo sveta z najvišjimi takratnimi stolpnicami ( nek arheolog je imel prav maketo Babilona). Hkrati se spomnim, da je kralj Herod ( ki je usmrtil Janeza Krstnika, ga obglavil), da je bil ekonomsko izredno napreden, liberalen. Saj je v svojem času na Sredozemski obali postavil pristeniško mesto – kjer so bili davki izredno nizki -zato so v mesto prihajali trgovci in obrtniki iz celega sveta. Moč in blagostanje mesta se je večala. To je bilo tipično pristanišče v grškem arhitekturnem slogu, posvečeno rimskemu cesarju ( ali se je imenovalo Sid?).

Včeraj pa sem gledal 4. del: o evropskih židih na koncu srednjega veka (16.stl.). Zelo žalostna zgodba za Katoliško cerkev (tudi za Cerkev) kot za evropejce.

Najprej govori o bogati judovski vdovi (Donna Gracia M.) iz Španije. Tam so okrog leta 1500 katoliki začeli preganjati Jude. Sveta inkvizicija. Judje so množično bežali ali pa sprejemali katoliško vero. Večina spreobrnjencev je novo vero živela na zunaj, svojo vero pa v veliki skrivnosti. V velikem strahu, kajti odkritje je pomenilo strahovito mučenje in nato umor. Ta vdova se je z večino Judov najprej izselila v katoliški Amsterdam. Toda kmalu je inkvizicija prišla tudi tja. Zato so zbežali v Benetke. Tam so jim doži dali najslabši del mesta ( hribček v močvirju) in nastalo je prvo judovsko geto. Še danes se vidi po mnogo višjih stavbah, ker so novoprihajajoči begunci prisili širjenje mesta v višino, kajti širina je bila omejena.

Nazadnje so begunci pred inkvizicijo zbežali v Istanbul, ki je bil takrat pud modrim Sultanom. Novoprišli begunci so s sabo prinesli ogromno kapitala, znanja in kulturo. Tam se je zaradi velike svobode Judom njihova skupnost razcvetela. Za Dono se je izgubila sled, ko je romala v Jeruzalem.

Vmes se je v Evropi zgodil Luter, ki je najprej Jude branil pred katoliki, potem pa ko Judi niso sledili njegovim paternalističnim spodbudam, pa je Luter postal še hujši do Judov kot katoliki. Napisal je prvi sovražni program, kjer je Jude primerjal z golaznijo. Še danes večina zgodovinarjev trdi, da je bil ta lutrov program osnova za pregon Judov v 3. Reichu. Da večina Nemcev ni do takrat pozabila tega sovraštva.

Kaj so razlogi za tako sovraštvo do Judov?

Judje so bili obrtniki, trgovci, bankirji, umetniki in učenjaki. Pripadali so večinoma zgornjemu in srednjemu sloju. Takrat je RKC (in ostale večje religije) prepovedovala kreditiranje in obresti. Kasneje so to spremenili. So pa bile obresti tudi 50%. Judom so bile predpisane, da ne smejo biti več kot 5%. Toda tudi to je bilo dovolj za podjetne Jude.

Glavni razlog je bil v tem, da je bila v fevdalizmu plemiška oblast zlizana s cerkveno oblastjo. Plemiči in knezi so postajali škofje in papeži. Tipični naziv je bil knezoškof. Ti so se velikokrat pretirano zadolževali za bon-viviansko življenje. Ko pa bi morali Judom denar vrniti, so pač ljudem navedli “teološke” razloge o hudičevem semenu. Uvedli so tudi inkvizicijo. Drug velik razlog pa je v veliki revščini večine, ki je seveda na socialističen način zavidala ljudem, ki so živeli bolje.

Pri preganjanju Judov iz Nemčije s strani protestantov – je večino Judov najprej šlo na Poljsko. V Krakov, kamor jih je povabil tedanji poljski kralj, ki jim je dal veliko pravic, saj se je zavedal, da bodo Judje s prihodom in delom Poljsko gospodarsko zelo okrepili. Judje so bili sinonim za gospodarski razcvet.

Sefardski Judje so živeli v Španiji. Aškenazi pa v Vzh. Evropi.

Poljski plemiči so bili po svoje zelo zviti. Zaposlovali so izobražene Jude za vse upraviteljske funkcije ( managerji). Najbolj izpostavljena funkcija v takrat izrazito kmečki, fevdalni Poljski pa je bila funkcija davkarja. Plemiči so od kmetov zahtevali preveč davkov. Sovraštvo kmečkih slojev je rastlo. Plemiči so bili skriti v utrjenih gradov, Judje upravniki pa v lesenih mestih ob obrobju mest. Zatorej so se kozaki maščevali Judom in takrat genodicirali kar nekaj mest.

Velik del Judov je Poljsko zapustil, nekateri so šli na SV Ukrajine, nekateri proti Litvi, večina pa proti Amsterdamu, ki je prvi v Evropi dal mestne pravice vsem prebivalcem ne glede na vero. Ni več dovoljeval preganjanje določenih meščanov zaradi vere. Od takrat je množica Judovskih beguncev iz Evrope pridrla v že protestantski Amsterdam in mu pomagala k največjemu razcvetu v zgodovini. Sploh Sefradski Judje so bili izvrstni trgovci, ladjarji, bankirji in tudi draguljarji. Sploh slikar Rembrandt je veliko slikal tako bogate Jude, ki so mu plačevali. Sam pa je še večkrat plačeval revnim Judom ( običajno so bili obrtniki, Aškenazi), ker so imeli tako lepe stile oblek, a jih je lako slikal.

Zelo malo pa je oddaja omenjala Judovsko radostno-melanholično glasbo ( violina, klarinet, kitara), ki so jo Judje uporabljali za poroke in številne verske praznike, da so plesali in rajali. Tej muziki se reče kletzmer in ima številne primesi iz okolja, kjer so Judje takrat prebivali: od Afrike, Španije, Portugalske, Italije, Poljske, Ukrajine, Češke, Turčije, Dunaja, Amsterdama, Nemčije, Litve itd. To je meni ena najboljših glasb, kar sem jih kdaj poslušal. Največ kletzmerjev sem poslušal na CDjkah takratne slovenske skupine Terra Folk ( ko sta Bojan Cvetrežnik, violina; Boštjan Gombač, klarinet, še igrala skupaj). Pa tudi plesal sem pri sv. Jožefu v LJ t.i. judovske plese, ki so imeli koreografijo povzeto po duhovnosti. Celo neka milanska koreografka je prišla učiti plese. Ta glasba ima neko življenjsko radost in igrivost, ki je podobna Mozartovi, le da je ljudska. Nekaj podobnega kot salsa musica. Le da je salsa hitro tudi utrduljiva zaradi konstantnega ritma, medtem ko kletzmer ves čas življenjsko diha hitrost ritma in barvo zvoka s čustvenim stanjem glasbenika oz. z zapovedanimi emocijami. Te pa gredo od enega ekstrema do drugega: od melanholije, trpljenja in gorja – ki so ga bežeči se judje v ZLONAMERNEM svetu ves čas doživljali, do razgibanega, otroškega, živahnega, praznovalnega veselja. V tem veselju je toliko pristnosti.

Judov zaradi današnjega Izraela in tudi skozi zgodovino ne idealiziram. Mi je pa zelo hudo, kaj smo jim katoliki, protestanti in nasploh Evropejci tudi v zgodovini povzročili. Hvala Bogu se je papež JP2 Judom pred leti opravičil za vse zlo, ki so ga katoliki v zgodovini povzročili Judom. Po svoje pa sem na potovanjih velikokrat poiskal judovski tempelj oz. govoril kdaj s kakšnim Judom. V New Yorku so bili ortodoksni Judje zelo nedostopni. Vsekakor judovstvo poznam iz spisov Stare zaveze, ki je za Jude Tora, oz. sveta knjiga. In jo že 6. ?? letni fantiči deloma znajo na pamet peti, ko se inicializirajo v moške. Skratka: meni so jJudje fascinantni, tako kot mi je fascinantna njihova vera, kultura, uspešnost, umetnost – sploh pa Kletzmer in njihovo praznovanje. Od vseh religij so najbolj vesela religija ( na praznovanjih), čeprav krščanstvo versko presega judovstvo z veselim oznanilom, so krščanski verniki v večini zamorjeni ( razen afričanov).

Skratka naslednji teden, v torek bo še en del, očitno najstrahotnejši. Saj bo pokazal, kako sta SOCIALISTA (sodobna inkvizitorja) Stalin in Hitler iztrebila (GENOCID) 4 miljone Judov. Hitler s svojim programom Končna rešitev. Stalin pa je prav tako pobijal v Ukrajini cele gete ( nekoč sem bral knjigo, pa sem pozabil kako se je tisto mesto imenovalo, mislim, da je imelo dve besedi). No, verjetno bo omenjeno naslednji torek. Tudi slovenski SOCIALISTI so izgnali še tiste Jude, ki jih je nacizem spregledal oz. partizansko gibanje vzelo pod okrilje zaradi materialne pomoči. Okrog 3.000 Judov po letu 1945 ni več živelo v Sloveniji. Premoženje jim je nova oblast ukradla. Le ene par Judov je ostalo, ki so bili globoko v sistemu zločinske KP: npr. Krefti, Moša Pijade.

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Objavljeno v Afrika, Bližnji vzhod, Cerkev, skupnost, občestvo, Glasba, Knjiga, MGMT - gospodarjenje - upravljanje, RKC, Religija, Rusija, Socialistična Federativna Republika EU, Verovanje, odnos z Bogom, duhovnost, ZDA, Zabava, Zgodovina, borza, trg, davki, denar oz. kapital, gospodarstvo oz. ekonomija, judje, liberalne reforme ( PRO FREE Market), politika, umetnost in kultura, učenje | Brez komentarjev »

Atomska skloništa v SLO za 200 meljard ojrof

Objavil pavel dne 3.12.2008

Ampak seveda, ko so pa tovariši komunajzarji gradili “atomska skloništa” z dveletno avtonomijo življenja na konzervah in posušenemu mesu in mleku v podzemnih jamah partije™ in za to zabil 150 meljard dolarof, “da se bre spasi rukovodstvo partije”, kar je ekvivalent današnjih 200 meljard ojorf, ter še 4 krat toliko za orožje JLA in UDBO, ki so zločinski režim partije, vred z jamami branili pred idejami ljudstva, je to ljudstvo, seveda glorificiralo pamet tovarišije in šepetaje od ušesa do ušesa prenašalo občudovanje pameti in daljnosežnosti razmišljanja tovarišijske boljševiške oblasti.

Češ, Pepe, ka veš, da je debelina vrat v Kočevju toliko in toliko metrof, v Bihaću pa letala direkt iz hriba vun letijo. Za takšne nebuloze ta folk najde besede glorije. Za ameriško raziskovanje vesolja pa seveda ne, saj je ameriško in Ameriko pa ja moraš sovražiti. Vred z vsem kar je človeštvu Amerika dala.

Naši mataji doživljajo serijske orgazme vsakič ko zguglajo kakšne podatke ki kažejo na ameriške nebuloze in politične napake oblasti. Kajti to je trenutek vzhičenja, trenutek, ko lahko mataji slovenistanki izstrelijo še en pljunek, ali celo bruh morda, na ogabno protikomunistično Juesej.

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Objavljeno v Shamanove umetniško mojstrske črtice, Slovenija, Vsepovsod SOCIALIZEM oz. NEO-fevdalizem, ZDA, inženirji družbe, modne družbene smernice, liberalne reforme ( PRO FREE Market), mediji, novinarji, politika, tehnologija in znanost | Brez komentarjev »

Prvi ukrepi Pahorjeve vlade so čista klasika ekonomske liberalnosti

Objavil pavel dne 3.12.2008

Pred meseci sem pisal, kako levičarski politiki populistično lažejo svoji publiki, ko pa so na vladi, pa morajo sprejemati liberalne gospodarske ukrepe, če ne želijo potopa države oz. blagostanja ljudi. Skratka za pozitivno rast gospodarstva so liberalni ukrepi nujni. Če pa das Volk od Der Führerja želi resnično socializem, bo le ta s socialističnimi ukrepi pač gospodarstvo, državo, ljudi in njihovo blagostanje zapeljal v še večjo bedo. To ekonomsko dokazuje novinar in ekonomist Stanislav Kovač v Financah v svojemu sklopu člankov Public Enemy, kjer prikazuje prve ukrepe Pahorjevih ministrov kot “neoliberalne” ( s socialistično psovko za klasične liberalce):

“Glavna gospodarska ministra Pahorjeve vlade, minister za gospodarstvo Matej Lahovnik in “razvojni” minister Mitja Gaspari, sta med prvimi in najpomembnejšimi ukrepi ekonomske politike napovedala veliko znižanje socialnih prispevnih stopenj za delodajalce.

Napovedano razbremenjevanje gospodarstva je ukrep ekonomike ponudbe (supply side economics), ki je bila tudi osrednja ekonomska ideologija odbora za reforme Janševe vlade iz leta 2005 in je dobila v Sloveniji zlovešče ime neoliberalizem.”

” …Minister Lahovnik je napovedal korenito znižanje socialnih prispevnih stopenj za delodajalce s 16,1 na 11,1 odstotka na bruto plačo, kar naj bi podjetjem znižalo stroške dela za okoli 650 milijonov evrov na leto (okoli dva odstotka BDP). Oba ministra sta poudarila, da je intervenistični ukrep države namenjen zlasti stroškovni razbremenitvi izvoznih podjetij, ki tekmujejo na globaliziranih mednarodnih trgih in so najbolj izpostavljena posledicam svetovne finančne in gospodarske krize….”

Slovenija je leta 2007 izvozila kar 70% ustvarjenega BDP. Kaj to pomeni: EKONOMIKA PONUDBE? Stategije državnih-planskih birokratov, ki naredijo vizije in svetilnike?

Med glavnimi teoretičnimi utemeljitelji ekonomike ponudbe je bil Bruce Bartlett (Reaganomics: Supply side economics in action, 1982). Ekonomika ponudbe temelji na liberalni ideologiji prostega trga in neomejene konkurence, ki je dobila sodobno razsežnost v podobi globalizacije, zlasti svobodne trgovine in prostega pretoka kapitala.

V središču gospodarskega razvoja je zasebni kapitalist – podjetnik, in ne država kot državni kapitalist. Država z ekonomsko politiko spodbuja gospodarski razvoj prek zniževanja davčnih obremenitev, da bi podjetjem ostalo več prostih ekonomskih virov, ki bi jih namenila izboljšanju konkurenčnosti, novim naložbam in novim zaposlitvam.

Ker gospodarskega razvoja ne poganja povpraševanje države, ampak ponudba podjetij na konkurenčnih trgih, je ekonomika ponudbe dobila ime “supply side economics” ali po ameriškemu predsedniku Reaganu “reaganomika”. Ekonomika ponudbe se enači tudi s pojmom neoliberalizem.”

Kaj ne razumem:

Kako to, da so liberalni ukrepi ekonomistov ( da sprostijo trg, ga osvobodijo pretiranega nadzora države, da prepustijo iniciativo privatnim podjetjem – ne pa da se gredo strategije in svetilnike – kako to, da je večanje ekonomske svobode človeka in skupin) ENAČENI z neo-konzervativizmom.

Reagonov krog je širil ekonomsko svobodo. Vsakdo, ki širi svobodo je liberalec. Kdor pa ščiti privilegije neke fevdalne elite, pa je konzervativec. Zakaj torej nekateri Reaganov krog imenujejo neo-konzervativce?

Kako lahko neoliberalizem ( v resnici je to klasični liberalizem) enačijo z  neo-konzervativizmom?

Mar ni nasprotje liberalnosti prav konzervativnost, socializem?

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Objavljeno v Slovenija, Socialistična Federativna Republika EU, Stanislav Kovač, Vsepovsod SOCIALIZEM oz. NEO-fevdalizem, ZDA, Zgodovina, davki, gospodarstvo oz. ekonomija, inženirji družbe, modne družbene smernice, liberalne reforme ( PRO FREE Market), makroekonomija, mediji, novinarji, podjetništvo oz. mikroekonomija, politika, stranka LIBERALCI, učenje | 24 komentarjev »

N571, svoboda medijev, zoper cenzuro

Objavil pavel dne 3.12.2008

Eh, kakšen mir spet veje v slovenskih medijih. Lepa Šentflorjanska SPROŠČENOST, taka idila v socialističnih Butalah ( ki jo sam pa tja zmoti kakšen tujcem mil eksces, ki naše novinarje =politike slaboumno vrže iz tira ( dragih, usnjenih foteljev) – tako kot npr. Pahorjeva neumna poteza z Ruplom). Vsi ta pravi so spet trdno na svojih stolčkih. Nobene panike, strahu in tesnobe več. Popolnoma sproščeno leporečijo o novi vladi. In za hobi spet iščejo napake v opozociji ( zavistno obirajo Janševe socialiste iz mesta Goga), kar so dosedaj delali že 60 let. Kje so sedaj Watch Dogs oblastnikov doline Šentflorjanske? So postali majhni ljubki psički, ali pa so že tako ostareli, da so že brez zob?

Slučajno sem našel na internetu spisek novinarjev, ki so pred letom dni kričali v svet, da so slovenski mediji ( večina v levičarski lasti in hkrati je tudi 90% urednikov, novinarjev in ostalih delavcev v vseh medijih LEVIČARSKIH. Res jih ne razumem zakaj so štrajkali. Ker je na oblasti bil malenkost manjši levičar kot ekstremisti iz SD, LDS in ZARES. Zgolj zato sem si shranil, da si bom lahko kdaj na hitro ogledal kateri novinarji so še danes politični aktivisti in ki priznavajo samo enega gospodarja. Koliko o pokončnosti, o izobraženosti in o pameti slovenskih novinarjev povedo spodaj podpisani: http://www.peticijazopercenzuro.com/?cenzura=6

Svojega propagandista -tko ( agitpropovca-ko) si lahko enostavno poiščeš s tipko F3, v okenček pa si vtipkaš ime medija ali pa ime oz. priimek družbeno-političnega delavca s FDV diplomo ( običajno pa brez diplome, morda tudi brez SŠ). Tale štorast editor na blogu mi stolpec novinarjev vrže v kolono.

Seznam podpisnikov 1. Matej Šurc Radio Slovenija 2. Igor Mekina Dnevnik 3. Matjaž Kranjec Hopla 4. Boris Čibej Delo 5. Saša Vidmajer Delo 6. Damijan Slabe Delo 7. Veso Stojanov Delo 8. Matija Grah Delo 9. Boštjan Tadel Marketing Magazin 10. Miha Jenko Delo 11. Rajka Pervanje Radio Slovenija 12. Sandi Frelih Radio Slovenija 13. Blaž Zgaga Večer 14. Helena Milinkovič TV Slovenija 15. Sandra Brecl Brankovič Radio Slovenija 16. Nika Repovž Radio Slovenija 17. Uroš Kokošar Radio Slovenija 18. Snežana Ilijaš Radio Slovenija 19. Simona Rakuša TV Slovenija 20. Ksenija Horvat TV Slovenija 21. Robert Škrjanc Radio Slovenija 22. Rok Praprotnik Dnevnik 23. Peter Kolšek Delo 24. Matjaž Frangež TV Slovenija 25. Biljana Vučenovič Radio Slovenija 26. Slavko Fras upokojeni novinar 27. Emil Lukančič-Mori Tisk. agencija Morel 28. Maja Cestnik TV Slovenija 29. Simon Tecco samostojni novinar 30. Marko Pečauer Delo 31. Brane Jerman Radio Slovenija 32. Rok Pintar Radio Slovenija 33. Živa Trček Radio Slovenija 34. Aleš Smrekar Radio Slovenija 35. Izidor Grošelj Radio Slovenija 36. Janina Jenko Radio Slovenija 37. Vanja Pirc Mladina 38. Jure Trampuš Mladina 39. Špela Novak Radio Slovenija 40. Jelka Šutej Adamič Delo 41. Matjaž Trošt Radio Slovenija 42. Domen Caharijas Dnevnik 43. Jože Jerman Večer 44. Borut Mekina Mladina 45. Nataša Štefe Radio Slo./Val 202 46. Rok Valenčič Radio Slovenija 47. Borut Mehle Dnevnik 48. Martin Tomažin TV Slovenija 49. Goran Tenze Radio Slovenija 50. Denis Sarkić Vest 51. Veronika Gnezda Radio Slo./Val 202 52. Tomaž Gerden Radio Slovenija 53. Niko Robavs Radio Slovenija 54. Boštjan Lajovic TV Slovenija 55. Mija Repovž Delo 56. Janko Lorenci upokojeni novinar 57. Darja Groznik Radio Slo./Val 202 58. Boris Žgajnar Radio Slo./Val 202 59. Andrej Karoli Radio Slo./Val 202 60. Matej Praprotnik Radio Slo./Val 202 61. Tadeja Milek Radio Slo./Val 202 62. Nina Zagoričnik Radio Slo./Val 202 63. Tina Šrot Radio Slo./Val 202 64. Rok Kužel Radio Slo./Val 202 65. Nataša Zanuttini Radio Slo./Val 202 66. Danila H. Kuplen Radio Slo./Val 202 67. Janez Čuček TV Slovenija 68. Bojan Veselinovič Dnevnik 69. Zoran Senković Dnevnik 70. Aleš Gaube Dnevnik 71. Bojan Glavič Dnevnik 72. Vasja Jager Večer 73. Ivan Vidic Večer 74. Branko Maksimovič Večer 75. Dr. Damijana Žist Večer 76. Jaka Adamič Dnevnik 77. Bojan Velikonja Dnevnik 78. Tanja Keršmanc Hopla 79. Duša Podbevšek Bedrač Hopla 80. Zoran Triglav Hopla 81. Ivan Žitko Hopla 82. Alenka Brezovnik Dnevnik 83. Uroš Škerl Dnevnik 84. Primož Cirman Dnevnik 85. Miča Vipotnik Dnevnik 86. Sven Berdon Dnevnik 87. Matej Povše Dnevnik 88. Grega Repovž Mladina 89. Dejan Pušenjak Delo 90. Jelka Zupanič Večer 91. Luka Cjuha Dnevnik 92. Aleksander Lucu Nedeljski dnevnik 93. Matija Stepišnik Večer 94. Nina Razboršek samostojni novinar 95. Tomi Lombar Delo 96. Jože Poglajen Dnevnik 97. Zdenko Matoz Delo 98. Tina Čuček POP TV 99. Bojan Gluhak Primorske novice 100. 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Free Market Thinkers – Misleci svobodnega trga

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Free-market Thinkers Written by Charles Scaliger Monday, 01 December 2008 00:29

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With bailouts and other unabashed socialist projects being embraced by both political parties to “save our economy,” has free-market economics been proved faulty?

In the bailout-a-week political climate, it is all too easy to believe that free-market economics are as passé as powdered wigs. Everyone, it seems, is a socialist now, and the old gospel of laissez-faire and free enterprise has been discredited by a cascade of free-market failures that threaten to bring down the economy of the entire developed world.

“For too long, the prevailing attitude in Washington has been that the market always knows best,” Congressman Henry Waxman (D-Calif.) said recently. Economist and newly minted Nobel Laureate Paul Krugman has counseled the new Obama administration to “figure out how much help they think the economy needs, then add 50 percent.” According to Krugman, “it’s much better, in a depressed economy, to err on the side of too much stimulus than on the side of too little.”

In short, the free markets, we are told, have failed, and more government supervision and central planning is the only possible cure. In truth, the economic meltdown we are now experiencing is a result of government intervention, not the free market. But that does not stop the proponents of interventionism from blaming the market for the problem and advocating more intervention as the solution. (See, for example, Brian Farmer’s article “Government Bailout.”)

In such times, we would do well to remember that free-market capitalism has been defended eloquently for over 200 years, and that the West, particularly the United States, has prospered because of the acceptance, mostly in the 19th century, of economic freedom, in principle if not always in practice. The men who gave us the theory of free-market economics were lonely, often misunderstood voices in their day as much as in ours, offering timeless economic truths to any who had, and have, ears to hear.

Adam Smith (1723-1790)

Generally regarded as the founder of the modern science of economics, the late 18th-century product of the Scottish Enlightenment, and a contemporary of Hume and Hutcheson, among others, Smith has a less-deserved reputation as a champion of free-market economics per se. By all accounts an eccentric if affable academician, Adam Smith popularized certain ideas that have come to be taken for granted by free-market economists, such as the notion that men in their economic activities are guided by self-interest (not necessarily selfishness), giving the appearance of an “invisible hand” that organizes human enterprise and guides it into maximally productive channels. “It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner,” wrote Smith in his most famous work, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, “but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our own necessities but of their advantages.”

Elsewhere in that landmark work, Smith pointed out that the division of labor in a free market leads to much greater productivity because it permits greater specialization. A single person manufacturing pins, for example, might produce 20 per day, but many different people engaged individually in the various steps of pin manufacture might produce many thousands during the same interval.

Smith believed that value arose from the amount of labor required to produce a given product, a notion that came to be known as the “labor theory of value.” This idea, unfortunately, was mistaken, as later generations of economists, especially in the so-called Austrian School, discovered. However, the labor theory of value was used by Karl Marx and other communist and socialist economists to justify central planning since, if value was a strict consequence of labor invested, then “correct” valuations could be determined by enlightened central planners. Some noteworthy economists, like Murray Rothbard and Joseph Schumpeter, believed Adam Smith’s contributions to economics to be greatly overstated. Rothbard believed that Smith copied many of the ideas of the great French economist Turgot, while Schumpeter doubted his stature as a thinker of the first rank:

Had he been more brilliant, he would not have been taken so seriously. Had he dug more deeply, had he unearthed more recondite truth, had he used more difficult and ingenious methods, he would not have been understood. But he … never moved above the heads of even the dullest readers. He led them on gently, encouraging them by trivialities and homely observations, making them feel comfortable all along.

Whatever his shortcomings, Adam Smith deserves to be remembered as one of the first popularizers of free-market economics, expounding in clear, still-readable language some of the most important precepts of free-market economics in an age when many were ready to hear the sweet doctrines of liberty.

Jean-Baptiste Say (1767-1832)

Best known for the law of economics that bears his name, Say was one of the first “pure” free-market economists. A survivor of both the French Revolution and the Napoleonic dictatorship, Say had experienced firsthand the ravages of Utopian social planning and its inevitable concomitants, oppression and terror. Censored by the Napoleonic regime and dismissed from a government post, Say quietly put his economic beliefs into practice, founding a successful cotton mill that employed roughly 500 people. Unable to publish his works while the dictatorship lasted, Say privately revised and rewrote his treatises in his leisure time.

Say’s Law is sometimes understood to mean that supply creates its own demand, but it really means that supply and demand are but two sides of the same coin. In an economy, different products are exchanged for each other, with money as the medium of transfer; there is no mystical dividing line between supply and demand. Say devoted a good deal of scholarship to demolishing the old mercantilist fallacy — still lamentably fashionable among modern economists — that money is the source of wealth. Money, Say took pains to explain, has value only insofar as it is desired to mediate indirect exchange in the market; wealth per se consists in other goods for which money is exchanged. Say probably understood better than anyone else in his generation the workings of the free market. His Treatise on Political Economy remains one of the finest and most original works in the entire history of economic thought. . Frederic Bastiat (1801-1850)

A Frenchman whom Karl Marx once dismissed as “the shallowest and therefore the most successful representative of the apologists of vulgar economics,” Frederic Bastiat labored tirelessly throughout his short life to promote the philosophy of freedom, both economic and political, in trenchant, highly readable language that has influenced millions of readers over many generations. Best-known for his posthumously published pamphlet The Law, Bastiat authored many books, essays, and tracts on liberty and limited government that probably did more to popularize freedom than anything since the time of the American founding.

Bastiat had a gift for illustrating his points with clever, memorable examples. His “broken window fallacy,” in which onlookers, observing a shop window broken by vandals, erroneously conclude that the act of destruction will be beneficial to the economy because it will make work for the glazier, is one of his most famous economic parables. For Bastiat, good economics was merely refined common sense; most onlookers would initially (and correctly) decry the broken window as a wicked and destructive act, and only later allow themselves to be led into the false rationalizing with which the science of economics is so unfortunately replete.

Such false rationalizing has led many to believe that World War II and the work it created were responsible for ending the Great Depression. In WWII, the military-industrial complex and the destruction were on a gargantuan scale compared to the glazier and broken window, but the economic principle illustrated by the parable is the same.

The cardinal error of bad economists, Bastiat explained, is to ignore the “big picture.” In the case of the broken window, the vandals have indeed given the glazier work — but that work will merely replace a good that has been destroyed. What the confused onlookers forget is the other goods that the glazier might have produced, that would have added to the stock of wealth, had their energies not been diverted by a destructive act. Good economics recognizes both the seen (in this case, the broken window and its replacement) and the unseen (what might have been produced with the resources diverted to replace the window).

In his magnum opus, The Law, Bastiat explained as concisely as has ever been done the origin of rights and liberty, and their relationship to the state. God-given rights are superior to man-made government, and the latter, to the extent that it has any legitimacy, is derived from the former:

Life, faculties, production — in other words, individuality, liberty, property – this is man. And in spite of the cunning of artful political leaders, these three gifts from God precede all human legislation, and are superior to it. Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws. On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place.

Government, in Bastiat’s view, cannot justly do anything that morality would forbid in individual action. If it is wrong for individuals to steal, defraud, or commit murder, then it is surely wrong for governments — which derive their powers from individuals — to do likewise. But government and laws are frequently abused, used to achieve collectively what most men would scruple to do individually. In this way, wealth is confiscated from some individuals and given to others in the time-dishonored pattern of socialist redistribution. This Bastiat called “legal plunder”:

But how is this legal plunder to be identified? Quite simply. See if the law takes from some persons what belongs to them, and gives it to other persons to whom it does not belong. See if the law benefits one citizen at the expense of another by doing what the citizen himself cannot do without committing a crime.

Bastiat, who believed unswervingly that “the solution to the problems of human relationships is to be found in liberty,” probably gave his life in service to that belief. While traveling around Europe promoting his beliefs, he contracted tuberculosis and died at just 49. He was perhaps the purest of the so-called “classical liberals,” a man who never deviated from his passion for liberty, and whose written works continue to inspire and enlighten.

Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973)

The best-known and most influential of the school of economics known as the Austrian School, Ludwig von Mises was the most eminent free-market economist of the 20th century. Forced to flee his native Austria by the Nazi invasion, von Mises took refuge in Geneva before emigrating to the United States, where he took an unsalaried position at New York University. Influenced by Carl Menger, the founder of the Austrian School, and Eugen von Boehm-Bawerk, another of the economic school’s early eminenti, the precocious von Mises took Menger’s ideas into then-unfashionable realms, criticizing socialism and credit expansion by central banks, among many other state-sponsored evils.

The Theory of Money and Credit analyzed minutely the nature of money, banking, and finance, while Socialism showed how central planning was irrational and unworkable because correct economic calculation and decision-making cannot be achieved by state planners. Mises’ magnum opus, Human Action, laid out a theory of what Mises called “praxeology,” the study of human actions and their motives. His praxeology was the foundation for his entire economic and philosophical world view, and helped de-mystify the “dismal science” for a generation befuddled by the sophisms of John Maynard Keynes and other thinkers hostile to the free market. However, Mises was not a gifted popularizer like Bastiat; much of his writing is dense and subtly reasoned, compelling the reader to work hard for his intellectual rewards. Yet Mises is the towering figure in 20th-century free-market economic thought. Many other economists, as well as statesmen like Congressman Ron Paul, and innumerable partisans of liberty (including this humble author), count Ludwig von Mises among their most important influences. One cannot truly understand freedom without some familiarity with the man and his ideas.

Friedrich Hayek (1899-1992)

One of Ludwig von Mises’ most eminent students, Hayek, also Austrian by birth, was the only Austrian economist to win the Nobel Prize in economics, thereby helping to confer scholarly legitimacy on a school of thought that collectivist economists like the disciples of John Maynard Keynes had worked hard to discredit.

Although not as consistent a defender of aspects of the free market as his mentor von Mises (or his contemporary Murray Rothbard), Hayek’s influential 1944 book The Road to Serfdom remains one of the most devastating attacks yet written on collectivism and its consequences. Written in an era of totalitarianism ascendant, the book was wildly popular, attracting acclaim from the likes of George Orwell (a professed socialist himself). Serfdom (which might more aptly but perhaps less memorably have been entitled The Road to Tyranny) argued that collectivism always leads to tyranny, as the inefficiencies and shortages brought about by central planning encourage the mistaken perception that more government is needed to “fix” all the problems. At the time of its publication, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union were the preeminent examples of the extremes to which socialism eventually leads. Subsequent decades, which saw much of the “free world” move aggressively into socialist regimentation without being taken over by mass-murdering dictators, lulled many into the belief that, after all, socialism can be “done right” and totalitarianism averted.

This, of course, is precisely what left-wing pundits and politicians are saying in the context of the ongoing economic crisis. A little socialism, temporary and kept within strict limits, we are told, has become a necessary evil to save us from the consequences of too much economic freedom. The death camps and other extremities of totalitarianism are in the rearview mirror now, except in a few backwaters like North Korea, and serfdom is an impossible outcome in an age of information and economic plenty.

But the road to serfdom may follow different paths, or take longer to reach its destination in a country like the United States, where many more barriers, both legal and cultural, protect us from totalitarianism than was the case in Czarist Russia or Weimar Germany. But the early indicators of our likely destination (absent a change in course) abound: a declining standard in living, rising levels of debt both public and private, and most ominously, mushrooming government, including ever-more intrusive police powers over American citizens. We ignore the warnings of Hayek to our peril.

Murray Rothbard (1926-1995)

Of all of Mises’ many students, Murray Rothbard was perhaps the most prolific and also the most unapologetic defender of economic freedom. His magnificent treatise on free-market economics, Man, Economy, and State, remains the most readable text on the subject ever produced. Both a historian and an economist, Rothbard wrote voluminously on economic history, particularly in the United States. His early book on the Panic of 1819 remains the best work on the subject, while a later history of the early years of the Great Depression (America’s Great Depression) is the best explanation ever set forth for that turbulent period.

Drawing on the Austrian theory of the credit cycle, Rothbard showed that the Great Depression was triggered by the 1929 bust that followed reckless credit expansion in the 1920s by the Federal Reserve, the Bank of England, and other major central banks. The economic correction of 1929-1930 might have resolved itself fairly quickly (as had happened previously following the Panic of 1907 and the severe recession of 1920-1921), Rothbard explained, but the interventionist policies of Presidents Hoover and Roosevelt prevented the markets from returning to equilibrium. The New Deal exacerbated and prolonged the event in a textbook case of misbegotten government intervention worsening the very problems it was supposed to cure.

Rothbard devoted a lot of ink to demystifying banking and finance, believing fractional-reserve banking and its modern outgrowth, fiat money, to be among the very worst evils. His The Mystery of Banking is a concise explanation of that arcane science (if slightly dated, in light of the various new techniques for creating money that the Federal Reserve has adopted in recent months), while A History of Money and Banking in the United States shows how banking and banking interests have militated against liberty since the foundation of our republic.

Known for his aggressive and uncompromising defense of liberty in every domain of human activity (a philosophy he termed anarcho-capitalism), Rothbard was derided by neocons and “respectable” conservatives of every stripe, earning from the late William F. Buckley an especially bilious obituary in the National Review. A maverick he may have seemed, but the indomitable Rothbard understood better than most that liberty can only survive when it is defended without respite and without compromise.

Henry Hazlitt (1894-1993)

No list of eminent free-market thinkers would be complete without mention of Henry Hazlitt, the 20th century’s answer to Frederic Bastiat. In an age of professional academics, Hazlitt was a rara avis, a self-trained economist without a college degree who wrote not for rarefied professional journals but for ordinary men and women.

A journalist by profession, Hazlitt, like Bastiat, used his considerable literary gifts to explain freedom and free-market economics in terms that were both easy and enjoyable to read. He wrote prolifically, authoring more than 20 books and numerous articles in his lifetime, including many pieces for the Wall Street Journal, the New York Times, and Newsweek. His best-known work, Economics in One Lesson, is in essence a modern restatement of certain of Bastiat’s axioms applied to 20th-century statist sophisms. Like Bastiat, Hazlitt believed that the errors of bad economists arose from a failure to anticipate the consequences of a given policy over the entire economy (rather than just a given sector) and over the long term instead of just the immediate future. Hazlitt is probably the man most responsible for popularizing the ideas of Austrian economics (which is to say, free-market economics undiluted).

The Economic Road Less Traveled

Sadly, the arguments of the champions of the free market have yet to capture the popular imagination or sway the actions of political leadership in the way that socialism has done. These arguments, after all, are generally ignored or dismissed by our major cultural organs such as the media. Moreover, freedom entails both risk and personal responsibility, whereas shills for socialism offer false promises of emancipation from both without harmful side effects. Particularly in times of crisis, public ignorance of free-market economics can prove a costly liability as government takes advantage of a climate of hysteria to enlarge its powers (”You don’t ever want a crisis to go to waste,” Illinois Congressman Rahm Emanuel, President-elect Obama’s chief of staff, has said).

Economics is one subject on which every man fancies himself an expert, but which few take the time to study. Yet economics affects every one of us every minute of every day. None of us can hide from the workings of the market, or escape the consequences of bad economic policies, whether or not we choose to understand them. A grasp of the fundamentals of the free market is an essential part of appreciating liberty. To cure economic ignorance, the writings of Smith, Bastiat, Hazlitt, Rothbard, and other free-market economists are very good medicine indeed. http://www.thenewamerican.com/…..t-thinkers

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Objavljeno v MGMT - gospodarjenje - upravljanje, Vsepovsod SOCIALIZEM oz. NEO-fevdalizem, Zgodovina, gospodarstvo oz. ekonomija, inženirji družbe, modne družbene smernice, liberalne reforme ( PRO FREE Market), makroekonomija, stranka LIBERALCI, učenje | 1 komentar »

Risanka Krtek

Objavil pavel dne 3.12.2008

Že 30 let je odkar ne gledam več risank po svoji želji. Prva risanka, ki jo lahko prikličem iz spomina je bila baje slovenska risanka o volku in Jančku. To sem imel kot res mali malček najrajši. Risanka, ki sem jo v času celega otroštva najrajši gledal, pa je Tom and Jerry. Kljub odlični Čebelici Maji. Nasploh sem vse risanke rad gledal. Kasneje sploh bolj inteligentne, kot je madžarska Gustav. Na živce mi je po svoje šla tista italijanska, možic in črte. Pa tudi nesmiselni Kojot in absurdna A je to.

Danes moj sin, star 2 leti in 3 mesece, dobi povprečno risanko ali dve na dan. Običajno zvečer. Za malčke današnjega časa je precej kultna risanka Mojster Miha ( orginalno: Bob the Builder). Sem pa tja pa tudi brezkrvna risanka o Nody-u.

Za najinega sina sva zečala z ženo risanke iskati pred 3 meseci. Prvo sva kupila Čebelico Majo, nekaj od teh pa sva si v knjižnici sposodila. Čebelica Maja se mi zdi ena najboljših risank za otroke okoli 3 ali 4 leta. Je pedagoška, didaktična, ravno prav realistična in ravno prav fantazijska. Pa seveda zelo psihološka: podjetna in radovedna Maja, butalski in prezaščiteni Vili, modri učitelj Filip – ki je prav posebej nadarjen s humorjem in pa ostali pomožni liki z bolj izraženimi motenimi značaji.

Trenutno pa najin otrok najrajše gleda Krtka. “Ahooooooj!”. Že kot oče moram razmišljati o koristnosti risank. Tako da Tom and Jerry za 2 leti starega malčka definitivno odpade. Čebelica Maja je po svoje tudi še prezahtevna za njega.

Krtek pa je optimalen.

Evo eno risanko za pokušino.

Radoživ, optimističen, čustven in podjeten. Vedno se sooči z nekim problemom. Sreča razne figure, ki so za otroke poučne. In Krtek išče rešitve. Vse različne načine poskuša na simpatičen način. Značilno je, da mu v prvo nikoli ne uspe, ampak vedno kaj simpatično zamoči. Vedno potem sprejme odgovornost za svoja dejanja in vedno potem optimistično in simpatično začne z neko novo domislico. Poprasaka se po glavi in tuhta. Potem se pojavi ideja in navdušeno krikne.

Od kolegov sva dobila CD s kakimi 10 risankami Krtka iz slovenske TV. Prvič sem jo dal gor na CD player, ko sem imel poln avto živil, ki sem jih moral znositi v zgornje nadstropje, a z otrokom sva bila sama doma. Tako sem mu dal gor CD s Krtki, zaprl tiho vrata, vmes pa znosil po 50ih stopnicah ene tri škatle živil. Ko sem vsa živila zložil v hladilnik in omare, je mali gledal morda 5 risanko. Tako je prišel čas, da sem ga še previl in kasneje dal spat ( vmes pa sva se seveda pogovarjala o Krtku). Neverjetno, kako se da z liki iz risank otroke zamotiti, jih potegniti v fantazijski svet in jih s temi liki tudi vzgajati.

Sedaj Krtka dostikrat z otrokom gledam. Vem, da risanke niso ravno priporočljive ( dr. ZZD do 7. leta odsvetuje TV: » Najboljša risanka je ugasnjena risanka!«) za majhne otroke, ker je le te dobro čimbolj obvarovati PC in TV ( alienacije) in dajati poudarka odnosom, igranju oz. druženju. Ne pa temu da otrok nedeljsko jutro zdolgočaseno in apatično bolšči v monitor z v TV.

Definitivno nisem za ameriške risanke tipa Levji kralj ali Ledena doba, ker so prehude za malčke in preveč agresivne, tudi težko dojema vse to. Krtek je trenutno optimalna risanka za 2 do 4 letnega malčka in tudi sam jo z otrokom rad pogledam. Zaenkrat vidim vedno bolj v globino kako čudovita in pedagoška je ta risanka, za razliko od neke risanke na TV ( Ruby in Max), kjer mali zajček ves čas izsiljuje svojo mamo, le ta išče rešitve na to, a je celo risanko neuspešna. Mali razvajenec in aagresivnež zmaga nasproti staršu. To je bolj risnaka za sodobne starše, češ poglejte kaj se z vami dogaja, skupaj se vzemte in nehajte že s to permisivno, neučinkovito vzgojo. Joj, mene kar tesnoba davi, ko to risanko gledam, in z ženo sva se že odločila, da bomo to risanko ignorirali, ker je bila že 2x zaporedoma protivzgojna.

Katere risanke od Krtka smo nazadnje gledali: od telefona, pa kako je rešil miško pred poplavo, pa kako je imel robotka za kopat rove, pa kako je pomagal rožam pred ličinkami itd.

Tukaj pa sem našel še par risank od Krtka, ki so seveda s tujimi naslovi, a je vseeno, saj Krtek tako ne govori. Vse kar reče je ” Eeeeeeeeeeeeeej!” ali ” Haaaaalooooooo!” pa seveda “Ahhooooooj”.

Na desetine risank o Krtku se dobi v različnih jezikih na spletu Youtube.com. V iskalnik youtube je potrebno vpisati zgolj sledeča gesla:

  1. Maulwurf
  2. krtek
  3. mole

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Objavljeno v Dialog, Film, Humor, Najini otroci, Praktični del življenja, Starejši sin, Vzgoja, Zabava, dobro vzgojen otrok, dr. Zdenka Zalokar Divjak, spomin, učenje, vzgoja samega sebe | 2 komentarjev »